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- H Beams (HEA, HEB)
- U Channels (UPN – C Channels)
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  Products
  
   Long Products

Long products are made of either blooms or billets, which are, like slabs, considered a semi finished product and are cast by a continuous caster or rolled at a blooming mill. Billets have a cross section 50 to 125 millimetres square, and blooms are 125 to 400 millimetres square.

In practice, they are not precisely distinguished by these dimensions, and there is considerable overlap in the use of the two terms. Long products include bars, rods and wires, structural shapes and rails, and tubes.

Bars are long products with square, rectangular, flat, round, hexagonal, or octagonal cross sections. The most important bar products are the rounds, which can reach a diameter of 250 millimetres.

They are sometimes cold-drawn or even ground to very precise dimensions for use in machine parts. A special group of rounds are the reinforcing bars.

Produced in diameters of 10 to 50 millimetres, they provide tensile strength to concrete sections subjected to a bending load.

They normally have hot-rolled protrusions on their surface to improve bonding with concrete.

Some bar mills also produce small channels, angles, tees, zees, and fence-post sections, with a maximum flange length of 75 millimetres, and call these products merchant bars.

Hot-rolled wire rods are produced in diameters between 5.5 and 12.5 millimetres and are shipped in coils weighing up to two tons. A great portion of these rods are cold-drawn into wire, which is often covered afterward by a metallic coating for corrosion protection.

The use of wire is extremely wide, ranging from cords for belted tires to cables for suspension bridges.

The common structural shapes are wide flange I-beams, standard I-beams, channels, angles, tees, zees, H-pilings, and sheet pilings. All these shapes are standardized, and each company has price lists showing which sections are produced and in which quality and length they can be supplied. Railroad rails are always produced to national standards.

Tubular steels are broadly grouped into welded and seamless products. Longitudinally welded tubes are normally produced up to 500 millimetres in diameter and 10 millimetres in wall thickness.

Pipes produced from heavy plates are also longitudinally welded after being formed in a U-ing and O-ing operation; they can be 0.8 to 2 metres in diameter, with wall thicknesses up to 180 millimetres.

Spiral-welded pipes are sometimes produced in diameters up to 1.5 metres. Seamless tubes are subjected to more demanding service; they are often rolled in diameters ranging from 120 to 400 millimetres and in wall thicknesses up to 15 millimetres, although special rolling mills can often increase the diameter to 650 millimetres.

Smaller diameter tubes, both welded and seamless, can be produced by reduction mills or cold-drawing benches. Tubes are frequently machined on both ends for various coupling systems and coated with organic material.

 

 
 
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